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Cryopreservation of Spermatogonial Stem Cells: Its Clinical Use for Fertility Preservation in Prepubertal Patients. P. 33–42

Версия для печати

Section: Physiology

UDC

612.61:612.663

Authors

Mariya V. Polyakova*
*Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Moscow, Russian Federation)
Corresponding author: Mariya Polyakova, address: ul. Nobelya 3, Skolkovo Innovation Center, Moscow, 143026, Russian Federation;
e-mail: marusiapoliakova@gmail.com

Abstract

Maintenance of mammalian spermatogenesis depends on the presence of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). SSC damage caused by chemical or physical actions on the body, various diseases or genetic predisposition can occur at any age. Infertility, as one of the side effects of cancer treatment, is an important issue for patients and their families. Since semen cryopreservation is applicable only for postpubertal patients, an alternative is required to preserve fertility in younger patients whose spermatogenesis has not yet begun. One of the most likely solutions is SSC cryopreservation. This paper analysed various methods of cryopreservation and studied recent advances in reproductive medicine opening up new opportunities for human fertility restoration. Such methods as testicular tissue cryopreservation, SSC transplantation, and testicular tissue grafting are at the experimental stage. However, their effectiveness largely depends on the amount of available stored SSCs, which has been proved by numerous studies on animal models. There has been significant progress in SSC maintenance in vitro, isolated from the testicles of primates, with subsequent autotransplantation. Cryopreservation, successfully used to preserve testicular tissue and suspensions of animal testicular cells, is a promising method for human gonadal tissues and SSCs and thus can be an alternative way to preserve natural fertility. However, today these reproductive technologies are still at the research stage, and their improvement in the near future will advance further understanding of the mechanism of spermatogenesis and its pathogenesis, which can result in more effective treatment of male infertility (even the most severe forms) and its prevention.

Keywords

spermatogonial stem cells, cryopreservation, in vitro spermatogenesis, fertility restoration, prepubertal boys, cell therapy, assisted reproductive technologies
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