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Effects of Thyroid Hormones in the Development of the Nervous System (Review). P. 115–127

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Section: Physiology

UDC

[612.82:616.441]–053.6(470.1)

Authors

Denis B. Demin*

*N. Laverov Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research, Russian Academy of Sciences (Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation)

Corresponding author: Denis Demin, address: prosp. Lomonosova 249, Arkhangelsk, 163000, Russian Federation; e-mail: denisdemin@mail.ru

Abstract

The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis plays an important role not only in the regulation of the developing nervous system in children, but also in the functioning of nervous processes in adults. Especially important is the preservation of thyroid function in people living under unfavourable climatic conditions of the European North of Russia. The review shows a wide action spectrum of thyroid hormones during the antenatal and postnatal periods, including their effect on the metabolism and formation of organs and systems, with the emphasis on the physiological responses of the cardiovascular system. In addition, the ecological aspect of goiter endemia in the northern territories is considered. Further, this review covers the neurophysiological effects of thyroid hormones and the receptor mechanisms of their interaction with certain morphological brain structures. The influence of these hormones on neuroblast division and neuronal migration as well as on maturation and differentiation of neurons is also demonstrated. Of particular interest are the data about the regulatory effect of thyroid hormones on the genes controlling the synthesis of proteins in different types of nerve cells and brain regions. Further, the literature data describing the influence of thyroid hormones on the intensity of tissue respiration in nervous tissue cells is presented. This effect is produces through the regulation of the activity of numerous respiratory chain enzymes. Moreover, the effect of these hormones on neurotransmission is demonstrated. In addition, the review covers the results of the studies on the changes in autoregulatory brain mechanisms in excess or deficiency of thyroid hormones, as well as on the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in the mechanisms of neuroregulatory disorders and depression.

Keywords

thyroid system, nervous system, hypothyroidism, thyroxine, triiodothyronine
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