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The Role of Excessive Meat Intake in the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis and Atheromatosis in Humans and Animals (Review). P. 174–187

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Section: Medical and biological sciences

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Authors

Vladimir N. Titov*, Tatʼyana A. Rozhkova*, Violetta I. Kaminnaya*
*National Medical Research Center of Cardiology (Moscow, Russian Federation)
Corresponding author: Vladimir Titov, address: 3-ya Cherepkovskaya 15-a, Moscow, 121552, Russian Federation; e-mail: vn_titov@mail.ru

Abstract

We believe that in the process of phylogenesis, seven biological functions were formed in consecutive order: trophology, homeostasis, endoecology, adaptation, perpetuation of the species, locomotion, and cognitive biological function (including intellect). The biological function of trophology (nutrition) is realized through the exotrophic (external nutrition) and endotrophic (internal nutrition) reactions. The endoecological function is realized through the biological reactions of excretion and inflammation. Its purpose is to prevent exceeding the upper limit of the physiological interval by any of the substrates, catabolites, or endogenous phlogogens. The underlying factor of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is the predominance of meat in human diet, causing deficiency of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the cells. Insulin initiates the transfer to the cells of oleic triglycerides (TGs) within olein apoE/B-100-containing very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) and their absorption by cells; that is why low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are not formed. The transfer of palmitic TGs into VLDLs is blocked under the conditions of their slow kinetic transformations into LDLs; this initiates retentional accumulation of palmitic LDLs in the blood. Partial utilization of ligand-free palmitic VLDLs→LDLs by monocytes, which occurs in the intima of elastic arteries, leads to the formation of atheromatosis. Atheromatous masses of the intima are, first of all, catabolites of PUFAs that cells failed to absorb within LDLs by way of apoB-100 endocytosis. Atherosclerosis, hyperlipoproteinemia, high LDL (LDL-C) content in the blood and PUFA deficiency in the cells are all disorders of the trophic function; atheromatosis of arterial intima is the result of only partial realization of the biological function of endoecology.

Keywords

atherosclerosis, atheromatosis, insulin, biological functions, LDL-C, arterial intima
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